Hepatitis B: Hepatitis B describes a condition where there is an inflammation of the liver as a result of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The spectrum of clinical manifestations in HBV infection varies from acute to chronic liver disease. During the acute phase, it ranges from subclinical hepatitis to anicteric hepatitis, icteric hepatitis, and fulminent hepatitis. In chronic phase the infected individual may remain in an asympromatic carrier state or may develop chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. The clinical outcome of HBV infection depends upon the age at infection, the level of HBV replication and the immune status of the host. About 90% of infected neonates and 50% of infected young children will become chronically infected. In contrast, only about 5% to 10% of immunocompetent adults infected with HBV develop chronic hepatitis B.
According to World Health Organization (WHO), hepatitis B virus infection is a serious global health problem. It is estimated that there are more than 2 billion people infected worldwide, and 300 million suffering from chronic HBV infection. It is the 10th leading cause of death and approximately one million deaths in are attributable to the end stage squeal of persistent HBV infection each year.
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) DNA Test: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) DNA test can detect the presence of viral DNA and measure the amount of DNA ( viral load ) in the patient’s blood. It can provide a very powerful adjunct to common serological tests that either detects the viral antigens (e.g. HBsAg, HBeAg or HBcAg) or antibodies produced by the host (e.g. Anti-HBc, Anti-HBe or Anti-H). Quantitative determination of HBV DNA provides valuable information to the physicians in the following situations:
Patients serological pattern fall outside of classical pattern.
Detecting active replication of the virus.
Determining the possible evaluation of the viral infection towards chronicity.
Determining the strategy of antiviral therapy.
Determining the efficacy of antiviral therapy.
Detecting the occurrence of drug-resistance.
Detecting relapse after discontinued antiviral therapy.
Hepatitis virus D cannot live without hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis is simply inflammation of the liver. This inflammation is brought on by different virus, among others. Hepa virus A brings on hepa A; hepa virus B brings on hepa B; hepa C virus brings on hepa C; hepa D virus brings on hepa D; hepa E virus brings on hepatitis E; hepa virus G brings on hepa G. Still to be fully described is hepa virus TTV..
Virus is a very small thing; it cannot be seen by the naked eye or optical microscope. It can be seen by the electron microscope.
There are two kinds of virus: RNA virus or ribonucleic acid virus. and DNA virus or deoxyribonucleic acid virus. DNA is a heredity material, part of gene that is, in turn, part of chromosome. DNA and RNA always work in tandem to make an organism that can multiply. In humans, the DNA contains the information code to make a protein that results in a tissue that results in an organ that results in a human being. The RNA is the message in the making of a protein like skin or mole. DNA alone or RNA alone cannot produce a cell or a tissue or an organ. The DNA virus or RNA virus is only a message. It is not an organism. An organism, whether single-celled, like bacterium, or multi-celled has the DNA and RNA working in tandem to be able to multiply.
The Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is capable of causing an acute or chronic infection that can lead to an inflammatory liver disease.
There are four major HEV variants or genotypes have been described. HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are typically found to infect humans whereas genotypes 3 and 4 have been found in both humans and several animal species. A majority of the animal infections are found in swine.
Globally, the Hepatitis E virus is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis.
Transmission and Outbreaks of Hepatitis E
Transmission of the Hepatitis E virus to humans generally happens when someone drinks water that is contaminated with feces containing the virus.
Hepatitis E viral infections in humans have been considered rare in most industrialized countries, including the United States. However, in these countries, there have been reports of acute and chronic HEV infections among transplant recipients and other immunocompromised individuals like those with HIV.
Transmission through blood between humans is rare and only a few cases of Hepatitis E have resulted from person-to-person contact. Research suggests that this virus cannot be spread through sexual activity.
Major HEV outbreaks typically occur in regions of the world where sanitation is poor and where there is excessive rain or flooding.
For example, in countries like Nepal, the virus can cause annual outbreaks during the rain and flooding season. During this season, it is a leading cause of hospitalization of all age groups.
Glaucoma is known as the “silent thief” because of how slowly it effects a person’s vision. It is so slow, in fact, that visual loss is usually undetectable by the patient until it is too late. For diabetics, glaucoma can be complicated by neovascularization. But in order to understand clearly how diabetes affects glaucoma, we need to understand what glaucoma is exactly.
What is Glaucoma?
Glaucoma is a disease that affects the way the aqueous fluid drains in the eye. Aqueous is found in the anterior chamber which is located between the iris and the cornea. It is produced by the cilliary body which is found behind the iris.
In glaucoma, one of two things happens to the aqueous:
Too much aqueous is produced (very rare, usually related to medications)
Drainage is hindered by an obstruction or narrowing of the drainage tubes
Both of these problems lead to a buildup of aqueous fluid in the eye causing the eye pressure to increase. The eye needs pressure in order to keep its shape. However, too much pressure can cause permanent damage to the optic nerve and lead to blindness.
The optic nerve is the gathering of retinal fibers into a bundle that exits the eye and travels to the occipital lobe of the brain. Each area of the retina corresponds to a specific section of the optic nerve. The retina is, essentially, one big neuron with a very long axon or tail.
Optic Nerve Cupping
When the pressure in the eye rises, it forces the optic nerve to “cup.” This creates a bowl-like appearance to the optic nerve which results in the loss of peripheral vision. If we think of the optic nerve as a doughnut, the center hole would be the cupping created by the increased pressure and the doughnut would be the rim of the optic nerve. The size of the doughnut hole grows as the pressure in the eye rises, which leads to permanent vision loss.
Types of Glaucoma
There are two main types of glaucoma:
Primary (chronic) Open Angle Glaucoma
Acute Narrow Angle Glaucoma
Diabetes Meal Planning
Diabetics Need Not Eliminate All Carbohydrates
A common mistake that newly diagnosed diabetics make is to believe that they cannot eat any carbohydrates. Unless your doctor advises you to do so, you will want to have at least 15-20% (ideally 40%) of your daily caloric intake to be in the form of carbohydrate energy.
The trick, discussed below, is to incorporate complex carbohydrates, rather than simple carbs, into your diet.
Carbohydrates are quickly broken down into glucose that is carried in the bloodstream for use as the body's energy. However, no one can survive on a carb-free diet. This is because glucose is the most readily available fuel for the body and is required to provide an ongoing source of energy.
As with any healthy diet, the keys are moderation and balance. Fast-acting, simple carbohydrates are those found in sucrose (sugar, syrup), and refined white flour (bread, crackers, pasta). These are digested quickly and can cause a quick spike in blood sugar, which can lead to a crash soon thereafter.
Complex carbohydrates are in fresh fruits and vegetables, which are higher in fiber, as well as whole grain breads, cereals and pasta. Particularly when combined with protein, these dietary selections can help keep your blood glucose at a more even, manageable level.
Over time, you will be and feel healthier!
Type 2 diabetes mellitus, is a lifelong condition also known as adult-onset or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
This is a chronic disorder that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.
The condition is characterized by a higher than normal blood glucose level (sugar) with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism.
The effects of diabetes mellitus include long-term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs (WHO 1999).
There are two types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, for this article we will look at type two diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes occurs when our bodies are able to make some insulin, but not quite enough, or when the insulin produced, does not work effectively; this is known as insulin resistance.
Insulin is a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into the cells, it acts rather like a key which unlocks the cells, when there is insufficient insulin, or if the insulin produced fails to work properly; the cells are only partially unlocked or not at all, allowing the glucose to build up in the blood stream.
Glucose: Some of the food we eat is broken down in the gut into sugars, the main sugar is known as glucose, which enters the bloodstream through the wall of the gut.
In the healthy body the glucose level is neither too high nor too low and is maintained by the hormone insulin which raises as our glucose levels raises after a meal, insulin work on the cells allowing them to take in glucose from the blood stream.
Some of the glucose is used by the cells for energy and some are converted to glycogen or fat, which can be used later when the glucose levels falls between meals, the insulin levels also falls and some glycogen or fat is converted back into glucose which is then released into the bloodstream
Type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in people over the age of 40 but can develop at any age. Until recently, type 2 diabetes was only seen in adults but now rather unsettlingly, also occurring in children.
In the UK the incident of type 2 diabetes is increasing, not only is it common in people who are overweight but it is also familial. It is about five times more common in South Asian and people of African-Caribbean descent.
It is believed, that there are an estimated 750,000 people in the UK with type 2 diabetes who are not yet diagnose with this condition.
Type 2 Diabetes Causes and risk Factors
Having a parent, brother, sister or child with type 2 diabetes
Of African-Caribbean or South-Asian origin
Overweight or obese
A waist measuring greater than 80cm in women and 94cm in men
An impaired glucose tolerance ( a higher than normal blood glucose level, but not sufficiently high to be diabetes)
A diagnosis of diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance when pregnant
Over 40 years of age, the risk increases with age
Have high blood pressure, or have had a heart attack or stroke
Don’t take regular exercise
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome and are overweight
Well, yes and no. It can be argued that there are really only TWO types of diets in this world: one that is health promoting and the other one that ultimately leads to disease.
So in that sense, there is really NO SPECIAL DIET or SPECIAL FOODS for diabetics. This is really what we all should be eating, if we want to enjoy good health and general well-being.
We need to accept the responsibility for our actions and realize that everything we put into our bodies contributes to our health or sickness.
With diabetes, adopting a healthy diet is the single most crucial thing that you can do to control or even reverse this condition and restore normal blood sugar levels. Physical activity and exercise are also critical factors.
Top Foods For Diabetics
Our bodies have been designed by nature to thrive on natural foods, mainly on fresh ripe fruits, vegetables, and young greens, with very limited consumption of animal foods or whole grains.
Diabetes Food List: Fresh, raw vegetables, fruits and greens
Eat a big raw salad once or twice every day. Throughout the day you can snack on vegetables any time you feel hungry. Greens such as lettuce (including iceberg lettuce), spinach, arugula, kale, collard greens, and other, make excellent basis for any salad. Add other vegetables: tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, cabbage, zucchini, radishes, carrots, beets, etc. You may add some fruits for variety: blueberries, blackberries, strawberries, pieces of oranges, apples, pears, etc. The possibilities are endless.
Avoid adding any fatty dressings to your salad – even the consumption so called “healthy fats” should be limited; no cheeses, fatty dressings, cold cuts, or croutons. For a simple fat-free dressing blend together some ingredients of your salad, for example try pepper with strawberry, strawberries with almonds, or pineapples with macadamia nuts, or other combinations, depending on your salads components.
Vegetable soup. Once or twice a week prepare a big pot of vegetable soup to be eaten throughout the week. Again the possibilities are endless. Find a basic recipe to start with, and use your creativity and whatever you have in your pantry and fridge to guide you.
Insulin Pumps for Treating Diabetes
Since I was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes in 2003, I have worn a small computer attached to my waistband. Its an insulin pump - and it has completely changed my life with respect to management of the disease.
Instead of having to take multiple shots each day, the wearer simply presses some buttons on the pump whenever he or she decides to ingest carbohydrates. And, unlike the long-acting insulin which is required to give the diabetic a baseline amount of insulin to counteract the stored energy (glucose) that is naturally released by the body during the day, an insulin pump is programmed to give microshots of short acting insulin, approximately every 15 minutes over a 24 hour period.
Sound complex? Well, yes - it is. However, management of diabetes (whether Type 1, or advanced Type 2) requires the patient or his caregiver to keep track of carbohydrates, activity levels and administer just the right amount of insulin to keep blood sugar levels from going too high or too low. Thirty years ago, management of diabetes was much more of a guessing game than it is today. Blood sugar meters were not small and portable like they are now. In fact, fifty years ago, diabetic patients literally did guess at blood sugar levels based on the amount of sugar in their urine! If you have sugar coming through in your waste, then your blood sugar levels are definitely too high!
Benefits of Using Computerized Equipment to Treat Diabetes
Whether you simply have a blood sugar meter, or are completely wired up with an insulin pump and/or continuous glucose monitor, these devices can assist you as the diabetic patient, as well as the doctor, in a number of ways.
First, diabetes records are stored on a meter and the pump. Each time I go to the doctor, he takes my meter and pump and downloads the information off of each. From the meter, a spreadsheet is created showing lows, highs, time of day during testing, how many tests a day, average readings, and graphical information to help determine when blood sugar readings are out of range. This gives a complete picture of the diabetic's readings for at least the prior three months. From there, adjustments can be made to determine to help correct overnight lows, or post-meal highs.
Second, an insulin pump can help you with calculations concerning the amount of a "bolus," or shot you should take with a meal, or to correct a high blood sugar episode. Based on information you program into the pump regarding your own body's sensitivity to insulin, the time that has passed since your last bolus, your current blood sugar level, and the number of grams of carbohydrate you are preparing to ingest, the pump will tell you how much of a shot to take. You still have to count carbs and test your blood independently (unless you have a continuous glucose monitor), but for those people with limited math skills, the computerized technology is great!
Third, if adjustments need to be made based on your A1C tests (average blood sugar level over about 3 months), it is simple just to program in a higher or lower baseline rate into your insulin pump. You can also have higher or lower baseline rates based on time of day, or the day of the week. Also, unlike with shots of long-acting insulin, which remain effective all day long, a diabetic on an insulin pump can often take off the device when exercising so as to prevent hypoglycemia.
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