Children can grow and develop optimally needed include vitamin. These vitamins than can be obtained from food can also be obtained through supplements containing vitamins. One type of vitamin that needed is vitamin A or retinol. Vitamin A functions include keeping moisture and clarity of the mucous membrane, allowing the eye can see well in low light conditions (afternoon or evening), and the postpartum mothers will improve the quality of vitamin A in breast milk, so the baby will get enough vitamin A from breastmilk.
Vitamin A can be found in fish liver oil, egg yolks, butter, cream and margarine are fortified with vitamin A. While provitamin A can be obtained from green leafy vegetables and fruits are dark yellow or red, and coconut oil. As a result of vitamin A deficiency is an assortment include impaired growth, impaired the ability of the eye to receive light, abnormalities of the eye such as xerosis and xerophthalmia, and increased chance of suffering from infectious diseases. Even in children who are deficient in vitamin A heavy death toll rises to 50%.
Vitamin A deficiency occurs mainly due to inadequate intake of vitamin A is derived from the daily diet. In children who experience a lack of energy and protein, in addition to vitamin A deficiency occurs due to inadequate intake of vitamin A itself as well as the storage and transport of vitamin A in the body is disrupted.
Typical signs of the eye due to vitamin A deficiency starts from night blindness (XN) where the vision of patients will decline at dusk can not even see the light environment. At this stage the vision will improve within 2-4 days with vitamin A supplementation is right. If allowed to develop into the conjunctival xerosis (X1A). Mucous membrane or the whites of the eyes look dry, wrinkled, and discolored to brown the surface looks rough and dull. Conjunctival xerosis will improve in 2-3 days, and disorders of the eye will disappear within 2 weeks of vitamin A supplementation with the right. If not treated it will look like a speck of white foam soap or cheese called Bitot spots (X1B) especially in areas outside of the eye slits. In case of severe drought will appear on the entire surface of the conjunctiva or the white part of the eye, and the conjunctiva was thickened, folds and wrinkled. If not given vitamin A, blindness can occur in a very quick time. But with vitamin A supplementation is right and with the right treatment Bitot spots will improve in 2-3 days, and disorders of the eye will disappear within 2 weeks. The next stage will occur if not treated corneal xerosis (X2) where the drought will continue until the black part of the eye or cornea. Cornea looks bleak and the surface looks dry and rough. Poor general condition and the child is usually malnourished, suffering from measles, respiratory infections, diarrhea. Vitamin A supplementation and treatment will lead to a state of the cornea to improve after 2-5 days and eye disorders resolve after 2-3 weeks. If this stage goes on and is not treated immediately will happen keratomalasia (X3A) or corneal softened like porridge and corneal ulceration (X3B) or injury. Besides the general state of the patient is very bad. At this stage the cornea can rupture. Blindness that occurs when it reaches this stage can not be cured. Furthermore there will be scarring of the cornea called xeroftalmia scars (XS) so that the cornea of the eye appears to be white or eyeballs seemed to deflate. Age groups are particularly susceptible to vitamin A deficiency is the group of infants aged 6-11 months and children under five age group 12-59 months (1-5 years). While the more risk of suffering from vitamin A deficiency is a low birth weight babies less than 2.5 kg, children who are not exclusively breastfed and non-breastfed until the age of 2 years, children who do not receive adequate complementary foods, both quality and quantity, malnourished children or below the red line , children suffering from infectious diseases (measles, diarrhea, tuberculosis, pneumonia) and worm infestation, children from poor families, children living in region with less source of vitamin A, children who have never received capsules of vitamin A and immunization in IHC and health center, as well as children who are less / rarely eat food sources of vitamin A.
Attention due to vitamin A deficiency, as mentioned above, in order to prevent vitamin A deficiency in IHC or health center in every February and August all infants aged 6-11 months should receive 1 capsule of vitamin A blue and all children under the age of 12 - 59 months received vitamin A capsules red. As for the new mothers up to 30 days after delivery received 1 capsule of vitamin A in red. To treat children with symptoms of night blindness (XN) to corneal xerosis (X2), where the vision is still curable, given vitamin A capsules on the first day of treatment as much as ½ (50,000 SI) blue capsules for infants aged less than or equal to 5 months, 1 blue capsule (100,000 SI) for infants aged 6 to 11 months or 1 red capsule (200,000 SI) for children 12-59 months. On the second day given 1 capsule of vitamin A according to age and again two weeks later were given 1 capsule of vitamin A are also age appropriate.
People, including children, with asthma are usually given an asthma medication called a bronchodilator’ to help relieve their symptoms. A bronchodilator is a medication that causes the muscle surrounding the lung airways to relax. This decreases the muscle tightness (called “bronchospasm”) and the amount of narrowing in the airways that makes breathing difficult. Bronchodilators provide relief of asthma symptoms but do not have any real effect on the underlying cause of asthma which is inflammation in the lungs.
There are two types of reliever-type asthma medications:
Short acting relievers: These asthma medications decrease symptoms for 2 to 4 hours. These include medications like Ventolin, Bricanyl, Airomir and Asmol. They are used when needed (as often as every 2 to 4 hours) to help decrease asthma symptoms like wheezing. It is very important to go and see a doctor if a child is not helped by taking a short acting bronchodilator or needs to use them more often than every 2 hours. Emergency medical treatment is needed if a short acting reliever medication is not decreasing symptoms as it normally would.
Long acting relievers: These help asthma symptoms for 8 to 12 hours and include asthma medications like Serevent, Oxis and Foradile. Long acting reliever medications are often combined within inhaled steroids (e.g. Seretide or Symbicort).
It is always best that parents and children understand how their doctor wants them to use reliever medications because every person’s asthma is different. It is also helpful to understand your child's asthma triggers so you can minimize their use of medications.
Preventative Asthma Medications
Preventative asthma medications treat the underlying cause of asthma because they decrease inflammation in the lung airways. This also decreases the amount of swelling, mucus and muscle tightness making breathing easier when they are used over a long time period (they cannot be used to help an asthma attack). Preventative asthma medications keep the airways in optimal shape.
The most commonly used preventative asthma medicine is inhaled corticosteroids. Inhaled corticosteroids suppress or control the amount of inflammation in the airway. Most children with persistent asthma can be well controlled on a low dose of inhaled corticosteroids. Low doses have few and mild side effects. An alternative to inhaled corticosteroids for children with mildew asthma is a different type of preventative asthma medication called Singulair. This is a different class of asthma medicine that works by blocking a specific component of the inflammation involved in asthma.
Original version published in Child Parenting Journal. With thanks to Professor Colin Robertson, Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne Australia.
Parents should definitely have enough knowledge and awareness on how to prevent scoliosis in children. Children are usually unaware of the importance of proper posture and may be greatly prone to developing scoliosis as they grow up. The bones of the children can also be very fragile and that is why they can easily be disrupted and can eventually assume a curved appearance. Scoliosis can be a very difficult medical condition for adults, but it is even worse in children. That is why it is important for parents to understand how they can prevent scoliosis in their children.
Scoliosis in Children
Scoliosis can have a very great impact on children. It will not only affect the physical, but also the emotional aspect of the child. Physically, once they have scoliosis, the children might not be able to perform their usual activities, especially those they find really pleasurable.
Children enjoy playing games and once they have scoliosis, they might not be able to play like they want to. Because of the physical limitations brought about by scoliosis, the child would also experience great sadness and might also feel some fear when it comes to their condition.
Before you allow this to happen, you must be able to understand several ways on how to prevent scoliosis in children.
Avoid The Use of Heavy Backpacks
Many parents may not be aware that allowing their children to have backpacks for school can be very dangerous, most especially if the weight of such bags is not controlled properly. Allowing your children to carry heavy backpacks can greatly predispose them to developing abnormal bone curvature or scoliosis. You have to make sure that if they have a backpack; it would only have an appropriate weight for them.
Allow your children to use another hand carried bag in which they could place some of their books or personal items so that they could effectively lessen the weight of their backpacks. You can also choose to let your younger children use stroller bags, which can much more convenient for them to use around school.
Look After Your Children Properly
One of the best ways to ensure the prevention of scoliosis in children is to see to it that you monitor their activities properly. You have to make sure that they perform physical activities that are appropriate for their age. The parents play an important role in prevention of scoliosis in children and should also learn how to observe their child’s body properly.
If you notice any physical abnormalities in your children, you must act on it immediately. You can try to observe your children, especially if they are walking. You can also observe their posture as they perform different activities. Some of the most observable signs of scoliosis in children are uneven shoulders and uneven hips. Once you are able to detect this, you should seek medical help immediately.
Keep your Children at the Proper Weight
It is also important that you keep your children in good condition when it comes to physical health. This can be a very easy and simple way to prevent scoliosis. You have to make sure that your children receive the adequate amount of nutrients their bodies need.
One of the most important things is giving your children the right sources of calcium and vitamin D to be able to keep their bones strong. Maintaining strong bones can definitely prevent the spine from easily being curved from its usual straight structure. You have to make sure that you incorporate calcium and vitamin D rich products into your children’s diet.
Some of the best food products that are known to be very rich in calcium and vitamin D are dairy products like milk and cheese, broccoli, sardines and even salmon. Together with a proper diet, you should also make sure that your children are able to perform some exercises that are appropriate for their age. These exercises can come in the form of games that the children can definitely enjoy a lot.
These are some of the most important things that you need to know about preventing scoliosis in children. If you follow these guidelines properly, you will be able to help your children live a healthier life without the risks of having any bone problems. All parents should learn how to recognize and prevent scoliosis in children.
What are the different asthma types in children?
Intermittent and Persistent Asthma Types
Children's asthma changes as they grow but In children, there are two main asthma types – occasional asthma (called ‘intermittent asthma’) and more constant asthma (called ‘persistent asthma’).
Children with intermittent asthma usually have their asthma symptoms triggered by viral infections or colds. Asthma symptoms from viral infections last for a few days and usually happen more often during winter when colds are more common. In children with this asthma type are usually completely free of asthma symptoms between illnesses. Children with intermittent asthma need to use a 'reliever' medication (called bronchodilator) for their occasional asthma symptoms but do not usually need a ‘preventer’ medication. Some children who have frequent episodes of intermittent asthma may benefit from taking a regular preventative medication through the winter months.
Children with an asthma type called ‘persistent asthma’ have acute asthma triggered by colds just like those with intermittent asthma. However, between illnesses they will still get asthma symptoms such as: sleep disturbance due to cough or wheeze, wheeze on waking in the morning, wheeze due to exercise or just general wheeze during the day. They will need to use their reliever medication to decrease these asthma symptoms. As a general guide, children who need to use their 'reliever' asthma medication for three days or more per week would be helped by using a preventative asthma medication as well.
Original version published in Child Parenting Journal. With thanks to Professor Colin Robertson, Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne Australia.
Your child complains about headaches and sometimes feel confused about whether your child's complaints are really serious or not. How do you know what the real cause of the complaint? Whether the complaint is really alarming? Headaches are experienced by your child and how you should step intervenes?
When You Should Children Be aware Complaints Headaches?
If you think your child is too often complain about headaches or you do not know the cause of your child's headache then you should be aware of the complaint. Often times, you actually know the cause of your headaches in children such as headaches due to lack of rest (sleep) or because his head had just hit something while playing. But if your child is experiencing headaches that cause is not clear or headache that occurs repeatedly and short then you should be wary. The question is, how long is a "short" is?
According to some experts if your child is 6 years old and complained about headaches is not clear why, as much at least once a month, in a few months, then you should immediately visit a doctor. Meanwhile, when this happens on your teen then you do not need to worry too much.
Another thing to note is the presence or absence of other symptoms that accompany a headache. Other symptoms such as the current state of children's health. The symptoms to look out for by parents when their children complain about headaches, among others:
- Decrease in the level of awareness of child
- Changes in vision
- Feeling faint
- Fever or other signs of infection
Children's Hospital and Complaints head
Generally, children experience the same types of headaches such as type of headache that is often experienced by adults. Infection in the body can cause headaches and so do certain classes of drugs that he consumption can also cause headaches.
There are most likely many things that can cause headaches. On small children, holes in the teeth, ear infections and sinus infection or commonly referred to as sinusitis (infection of the cavity in the skull) can cause a feeling of pain as headaches often complained of by children. Children can also experience migraine and muscle tension headaches (tension headaches).
Sense of the throbbing migraine headaches can complain about the kids even at a very young age. If you have an infant or toddler, seems highly unlikely you will be able to know if he is experiencing migraines because children of this age can not describe the pain to your head.
In children and adolescents older, migraine headaches are generally easy to spot because he was able to describe the headache. He may experience migraine with or without aura. Aura is a phenomenon that usually occurs before the pain is felt. Usually a visual symptom in which he felt like seeing a bright light which is then followed by a look at a black dot in the middle of the field of view.
Handling Children Headaches
Simple treatments you can do at home. Ask the children to lie down in a cool, dark room and give your child paracetamol kind of headache medicine.
When you bring your child to the doctor, the doctor will generally ask about the history of the disease to help doctors in determining the type of disease and the treatment needed. Therefore, remember the important things related to your child's headaches. Frequently asked questions are about the severity and frequency of headaches your child, as well as on the pattern of headache complaints. The doctor will also ask what can cause head pain worse or less menacing. The answers given will help ensure physicians in determining the child's illness, especially if the child is experiencing migraine headaches. His own migraine headaches are usually caused by things such as stress, lack of rest (sleep), or certain foods and drinks.
Doctors generally will also check your child's overall physique. Disturbances in certain parts of the body can cause headaches.
Generally, most headaches are often experienced by children is due to migraine headaches and muscle tension headaches. When a headache is a migraine headache because your doctor will explain anything that can trigger migraines and then prescribe medication class analgesic (pain reliever).
Meanwhile, if your child has a chronic headache then the doctor will usually prescribe a medication that can prevents the occurrence of headaches.
Children who experience headaches due to muscle tension headaches usually describe it as a pressing pain in the head. This type of headache can be treated with drugs such as paracetamol.
The important thing to remember is that you should first consult with your doctor before giving certain drugs to cope with your child's headaches. Your doctor will help what is the appropriate remedy is given to your child. Usually relaxation and stress reduction can help children cope with headaches.
(Cfs / kidshealth.org)
• Feelings of pain on defecation
• Can not defecation
• Rarely defecation, 4 days no defecation is called constipation
• Often due to:
1. Foods that contain less fiber
2. Too much drinking milk
• Resist the urge defecation, when the child pain on defecation, often hold repressed so that faeces harder, even causing rips anus (anal fissure)
Care at home
1. For infants / children aged less than 1 year.
• When more than 2 months to give fruit juice 2 times a day.
• Milk replaced with soy formula.
• If the baby is over 4 months to give slurry containing lots of fiber such as cereals, legumes, spinach 2 times a day.
2. Children aged more than 1 year.
• Provide fruit or vegetables at least 3 times a day.
• Fibrous foods such as cereals, corn flakes, oatmeal, brown rice. Popcorn is a snack that is high in fiber good for children over 1 year.
• Reduce foods that cause constipation such as milk, ice cream, yogurt and carrots cook. • Give plenty of water to drink.
3. Toilet training.
4. Softeners faeces (stool softener) When the administration of diets do not succeed, give stool softener every night for 1 week example: metamacil, menthol oil ½ -1 tablespoon.
5. Do not carelessly use suppositories or enemas ask doctor's advice.
Head injury is the leading cause of death in children over 1 year of age in the United States. Head injury or commonly also called head trauma has various effects such as emotional impact, the impact of psychosocial and economic impact both for children and for their family due to the length of hospitalization and the need for long-term treatment of post-trauma.
Child's brain is more malleable than the adult brain to make it more susceptible to injury in the event of a sudden change in velocity (trauma).
In addition to head trauma can lead to death, it can also cause other harmful effects that permanent disability.
10-20% of children who suffered severe head injuries will have problems with short-term memory and showed a slower response, especially if in a coma for at least 3 weeks. In addition, more than half will have a nervous breakdown.
Many forms of head trauma are primarily:
1. Trauma to the scalp
Generally in the form of bleeding due to rupture of the scalp.
2. Head fractures
3. Temporary loss of consciousness
Can be accompanied by seizures, vomiting, and impaired memory.
4. Damage to brain tissue
5. Heaps of blood under the skull
Due to rupture of blood vessels
6. Foreign bodies in the head
7. Bleeding in the head
8. Damage to brain cells thoroughly
Children who experience head trauma is often accompanied by other physical trauma. Therefore the child should be immediately taken to a doctor to be evaluated carefully so that the harmful consequences such as those mentioned above can be reduced as low as possible.
In general, children who are good conscience, act normal and abnormal results of his neurological examination after experiencing trauma may need to be observed for 4 hours, and if not found deterioration of vital signs such as airway, breathing and circulation, the child can be observed at home with advice by doctors to keep track of vital signs as instructed by your doctor. The children were still given the restrictions on the activities carried out for 72 hours. And if there is a setback in that time period, parents are advised to immediately take her to the hospital.
Indications of hospitalization are:
1. Loss of consciousness
2. Prolonged state of confusion
3. Severe vomiting
4. The mechanism of trauma is not clear or trauma without anyone being watched
5. Signs localized neurological disorders
Eg respiratory problems, impaired speech, paralysis of limbs
7. Head fractures
Similarly, if children need to watch out blood from the mouth, nose or ears that can be derived from the cranium.
In children who returned home from treatment in hospital, there are several indications that need to be done:
1. Parents should say what happened to the child after discharge from hospital
2. Explained to the parents and children that may be found symptoms of headache and vomiting, parents are expected to accompany the child sleeping and conducting periodic monitoring children's awareness
3. Hold regular consultations with the child if the child is in good condition
(Cfs / PKB simplified of course IKA 33th)